Anton du Plessis (South Africa): Metrology of additively manufactured lattice structures by X-ray tomography
Additive manufacturing allows complexity of manufactured structures, allowing entirely new design capabilities. In the context of complex structure design, lattice structures hold the most promise for high complexity, tailorable and ultra-lightweight structures. In medical applications, these structures find application especially in bone implants – allowing matching of local elastic modulus of implant to that of bone and also allowing osseointegration. With this new complexity comes new manufacturing quality control and metrology challenges. Traditional metrology tools cannot access the entire structure and the only reliable method to inspect the inner details of these structures is by X-ray tomography. This work highlights the challenges of this process, demonstrating a workflow for dimensional metrology of coupon lattice samples. The confidence gained by inspection of such lattice coupons support the application of these lattices in end-use parts. The same principles are applied to larger samples and limitations are discussed using examples of implants.
Professor du Plessis is a researcher with more than 20 years of academic experience (15 years post-PhD). He is academically ranked as Associate Professor (Physics Department) and manages an interdisciplinary research centre for X-ray micro computed tomography – the Stellenbosch CT facility. He is associated with the newly established Institute for Biomedical Engineering and also with the Nelson Mandela University in an honorary research position. Nationally and internationally he collaborates widely, also working closely with industry partners. His research interests are in Additive Manufacturing, X-ray Tomography and Biomimicry. In his most recent research, he focuses on structural integrity in metal laser powder bed fusion and works on studies of lattice structures (extreme lightweight “scaffold” structures) through a funded project of the South African Collaborative Program in Additive Manufacturing (CPAM). He is associate editor of the highest impact-factor journal in this field – Elsevier’s Additive Manufacturing journal (IF = 7.2).
Jack Stubbs (USA): Applications of 3D printing in Medical Training, Surgical Planning and Patient Specific Medical Devices
3D Printing is influencing the medical and surgical fields in many positive and interesting ways. The PD3D lab at the University of Central Florida has been working with many applications including Patient Specific Pre-Surgical Planning Models, Patient Specific Medical Device Development, Surgical Skills Task Trainers, Anatomical Training Models and Procedural Simulation Manikins. Through the advances of Polyjet 3D Printing and patented methods of creating composite structured materials, the tunability and fidelity are being develop to simulate realistic tissues that look, feel and behave like human tissues.
Professor Jack Stubbs studied Physics and Electro-Optics at the Miami University of Ohio and the University of Dayton (Ohio). In the 1980’s he worked with the Department of Defense at Wright Patterson Airforce Base, the Naval Weapons Center and Kirtland Airforce Base. This work included development of customized Optical Metrology system to characterize High Energy lasers for application to the Airborne Laser Lab and the Star Wars SDI Laser system. Additionally he became involved in pilot protection, advanced cockpit control and materials characterization.
In the 1990’s, Jack lead a Technology development team for Ethicon Endo Surgery in the scale up of Laparoscopic surgery, implementing imaging, visualization, robotics and sensors to Surgical Operating. This lead to the appointment of Principal Investigator for the Surgical Operating Room of the Future with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, developing telepresence surgical robotics and computer based simulation systems for training and education. Jack founded and directed a research and development company in 1996, operating through 2010 that resulted in over 50 patents including the Airseal trocar for laparoscopic surgery. This is now the trocar of choice for robotic surgery having been used in over 1,00,000 surgeries globally. The last 9 years have been at the University of Minnesota Medical School and most recently the University of Central Florida Institute for Simulation and Training where he leads a team developing new approaches and technology for simulating and teaching healthcare interactions and procedures. He has used rapid prototyping, 3D printing and additive manufacturing since the mid 1990’s to improve designs, prototype and test devices and systems and to implement into a cost effective development model.
Noam Eliaz (Israel): Corrosion of Additively Manufactured Metallic Implants
The corrosion resistance of an implant material affects its functionality and durability and is a prime factor governing biocompatibility. The introduction of additively manufactured (AM’ed) dental, orthopedic, maxillofacial, and other implants raises a new challenge to corrosion engineers. AM’ed cellular and other structures often contain inherent crevices. In addition, higher level of porosity, less homogeneous microstructures, and higher residual stresses might all degrade the corrosion resistance, not only the mechanical properties, compared to wrought alloys. Furthermore, surface treatments such as electropolishing and electroplating may also be more challenging when dealing with cellular structures. This presentation highlights the challenges in corrosion control of implants in general, and of AM’ed metallic implants in particular.
References:  S.-B. Hong, N. Eliaz, E.M. Sachs, S.M. Allen and R.M. Latanision, “Corrosion Behavior of Advanced Ti-Based Alloys Made by Three-Dimensional Printing (3DPÔ) for Biomedical Applications,” Corros. Sci., 43(9) (2001) 1781-1791.  N. Eliaz, “Corrosion of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review,” Materials, 12(3) (2019) 407.
Professor Noam Eliaz is full professor and Director of the Biomaterials and Corrosion Laboratory, and the founder of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Tel Aviv University (TAU). He is also an Adjunct Professor at Vellore Institute of Technology, India. He is currently founding TAU 3D Printing Research and Development Center. He has garnered numerous awards, including NACE International’s H. H. Uhlig Award, Fellow Award, and Technical Achievements Award, T.P. Hoar Award for the best paper published in Corrosion Science (2001), and JSPS fellowship. He is currently a member of the editorial boards of six journals. He was elected to the Israel Young Academy (2015) and was appointed as a member of the Governing Board of The German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF) and as a member of the committee responsible for the 3rd “State of the Sciences in Israel” report.
Philipp Brantner (Switzerland): Point-Of-Care 3D Printing – Where do we stand?
With 3D Printing in healthcare becoming increasingly common this talk will take a broader look at the potential applications of 3D Printing in hospitals and its associated challenges. Based on the experience at the Basel University 3D PrintLab it will take into account the feedback of referring physicians as well as alternative presentation technologies such as virtual reality.
Dr. Philipp Brantner is a Board-certified radiologist and currently an attending at the Department of Radiology at the University Hospital of Basel. He co-heads the 3D PrintLab which he co-founded in 2016 and has a vast experience in 3D printing at the point of care. His research interests include soft-tissue 3D-printing, imaging informatics and advanced visualization as well as workflow-related topics.
Giorgio De Pasquale (Italy): Development and integration of AM lattice structures to reliable technological solutions
Additive manufacturing is allowing since several years the fabrication of metal lattice structures with high resolution, especially thanks to the increasing performances of DMLS (direct metal laser sintering) processes. The mechanical behavior of lattice structures depends primarily to the parent material, however it can be significantly modified or adjusted by means of the design of single cell and the 3D cells stacking. The most known advantages associated to engineered cellular structures are lightweight and thermal exchange, although advanced functionalities are appearing in the fields of materials joints and energy absorption. The applications of these properties are wide and include biomechanics/bioengineering, micromechanics, human-machines interfaces (HMI), sport and traditional mechanics (machines, vehicles, plants, etc.) The most recent projects released by the “Smart Structures and Systems” Lab. include the AM processes optimization for qualified and repeatable production of lattices at industrial quality level, the design methodologies linked to reduced-order modeling, the testing for reliability, and the development of patented technologies exploiting metal AM lattice structures.
Professor Giorgio De Pasquale is Associate Professor of Machines Design at Politecnico di Torino (Italy), Dept. of Mechanics and Aerospace, since 2016. He has about 15 years of research experience in the field of “Smart Structures and Systems” (SSS Lab), which includes micromechanics/MEMS, human-machines interfaces, wearable systems, energy harvesting and additive manufacturing. As visiting researcher at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and USF (University of South Florida) between 2009 and 2013, he worked on low-frequency MEMS inertial sensors and on self-powered sensing glove. He has active projects with research institutions in USA, Japan and Europe. He is involved in industrial R&D and market-driven products development. He got ASME, SAPIO and MESAP Awards in 2010/11, and he is author of about 80 scientific papers and of about 15 patents.
Paulo Jorge Bártolo (UK): Recent advances in biomanufacturing
Additive manufacturing encompasses a group of technologies enabling the generation of complex, biomimetic 3D structures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The ability of 3D printing to pattern multiple materials, cell types and biomolecules provides a unique tool to create tissue constructs closely resembling the composition, architecture and function of biological tissues. This keynote provides a concise overview of recent advances on the use of additive manufacturing and materials for the fabrication of cell-laden constructs and multi-functional and hierarchical scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Paulo Bartolo is Chair Professor on Advanced Manufacturing at the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering (MACE), School of Engineering, University of Manchester (UK) and Collaborator/Visiting Professor at both the Advanced Manufacturing Group at the Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico) and CIAUD (The Research Centre for Architecture, Urbanism and Design) a Research Centre of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology based at the University of Lisbon (Portugal). At the University of Manchester he is the Industry 4.0 Academic Lead; Head of the Manufacturing Group; member of the Management Board of the EPSRC & MRC Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Regenerative Medicine; coordinator of the “scale-up and manufacture” cross-cutting capability of the Advanced Medical Materials@Manchester platform; member of the Thomas Ashton Institute (Academic Lead for Industry 4.0 – implications for health and safety); member of the Manchester Regenerative Medicine Network – Enabling Technologies domain. He is a Fellow of CIRP (The International Academy of Production Engineering) and served the Academy as Chairman of the CIRP Scientific Technical Committee on Electro-Physical and Chemical Processes (STC E) (2016-2019) and as Vice-Chairman of STC E (2013-2016) and Vice-Chairman of the CIRP Collaborative Working Group on Biomanufacturing (2010-2012). Paulo Bartolo is also Advisor of the Brazilian Institute of Biofabrication (INCT-BIOFABRIS) funded by the Brazilian Government. He authored more than 600 publications in journal papers, book chapters and conference proceedings, co-edited 22 books (most of them published by Springer, Wiley and Taylor&Francis) and holds 15 patents. Paulo Bártolo is the Founder Editor of the Virtual and Physical Prototyping Journal published by Taylor & Francis and Editor-in-Chief of the Biomanufacturing Reviews published by Springer. He is also member of the Editorial Board of several international journals including major journals on additive manufacturing and 3D bioprinting. Since 2002, Paulo Bartolo has been engaged in around 100 research projects funded by EPSRC, Innovate UK, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Royal Society, the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, the Portuguese Agency for Innovation, the European Commission and Industry representing around £45 million. Paulo Bartolo also received a commendation and public recognition from the Portuguese Government, published in the Portuguese Government’s Law Journal (Diário da Republica), for the outstanding work as advisor of the Portuguese Government in the area of Research and Innovation; Commendation from the Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, published in the Portuguese Government Journal (Diário da Republica), for the outstanding work carried out (2014);
Ho, Chaw Sing (Singapore): Responding to a global pandemic crisis with 3D printed nasopharyngeal swabs
As the world awaits for a Covid-19 vaccine, the number of Covid-19 positive patients continues to increase unabated globally. Beyond social distancing, it is now a widely adopted practice for countries easing lock-down measures to deploy mass testing on its population. To support this mass testing during a period of supply chain disruption, we describe the successful development of a novel, cost-effective and manufacturable 3D printed nasopharyngeal swab for the detection of SARS-COV-2 virus. As a digital technology, 3D printing enables the fabrication of a product based on a digital design without going through the traditional mold fabrication and tooling qualification, resulting in rapid product development and validation cycles. The clinical efficacy of the swab design was compared to an industry standard swab, carried out in a case-controlled study of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 against control patients who had tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Compared to the standard Copan FLOQswab, the 3D printed swab displayed excellent correlation of RT-PCR cycle threshold values on paired clinical testing, as well as excellent true positive and true negative agreements based on Cohen’s kappa.
Dr Ho Chaw Sing is the co-founder and Managing Director of NAMIC (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Cluster), a Singapore government platform initiative to catalyse innovation and scale industrial adoption of digital additive manufacturing technologies. Since its inception in late 2015, NAMIC has raised several millions in public-private funding to support various AM initiatives across several industry sectors. Before joining the public sector, he spent several years with HP Singapore and Chartered Semiconductor, where he undertook various executive roles in technology and product development, as well as supply chain operations. An advocate for 3D Printing and its role in the future of humanity, Chaw Sing has participated in numerous forums, including at the World Bank Group, Development Research Centre China, and the World Economic Forum - Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. He is passionate about nurturing deep tech start-ups, and is an appointed mentor in various start-up accelerator programs. A prolific inventor in his early career, he holds 48 US/international patents.
Chaw Sing is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore Faculty of Engineering, and lectures on Industry 4.0 topics in the areas of cyber-physical integration and digital manufacturing technologies such as 3D Printing. He earned his doctorate (Ph.D) in Electrical and Computer Engineering, and has a Bachelor’s (honours) degree in Electrical Engineering with a major in Microelectronics, both from the National University of Singapore.
Bahattin Koc (Turkey): Biomimetic 3D Bioprinting
Bioprinting is a relatively new tissue/organ engineering method where living cells with or without biomaterials are printed layer-by-layer in order to create three-dimensional living structures. In comparison to scaffold-based tissue engineering approaches, this method fabricates complex living and non-living biological structures from live cells alone or with biomolecules and biomaterials. This presentation will discuss about direct 3D bioprinting of cell aggregates and also cell-laden hydrogels for tissues/organ engineering. Bioprinting process such as how to digitally copy and design tissue/organs, how to prepare bio-inks, bio-printing instructions and how to print live cells will be explained. The presentation will also discuss the several applications and also the challenges in organ printing.
Professor Bahattin Koc is Full Professor of Manufacturing Engineering at the Sabanci University (SU). He received his Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in Industrial Engineering (Manufacturing) from North Carolina State University in 2001 and 1997 respectively. He was an Associate Professor (Tenured) of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the University at Buffalo (UB) before joining to Sabanci University in 2010. Dr. Koc is a founding member and was the Program Coordinator (Chair) of the Manufacturing Engineering Program at Sabanci University. He is the director of Sabanci University Integrated Manufacturing Center and also 3D Bioprinting Lab at Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center.
Dr. Koc’s research interests include three dimensional (3D) Bioprinting, computational biomodelling and biofabrication, additive manufacturing, heterogeneous object modeling and nano/micro-scale modeling and manufacturing. He has published his research results in over 95 scientific papers. He holds three patents/patent applications related to bioprinting/tissue engineering. His work related to 3D Bioprinting of aortic construct with live cells has been highlighted in several media outlets such as BBC horizon, CNN Turk and the other TV channels and newspapers.
Dr. Koc’s research work has been recognized by several international and national awards. Dr. Koc is the recipient of Elginkan Foundation Science and Technology Award, Turkish Heart Association Award, Marie Curie Career Integration Award by EU Research Agency, Most Cited Author in Computer Aided Design Journal Award from Elsevier, University at Buffalo (UB) STOR Inventor Award, UB Reifler Award and UB Interdisciplinary Research and Development Award and more.
As PI/Co-PI, Dr. Koc received funding of more than $20 million for his research work. His research work has been supported by major national and international research agencies and organizations such as the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, the European Union the European Research Council FP7, and the U.S. Army Medical Research.
Francesco Moscato (Austria): Functional and anatomical 3D-printed models for cardiovascular research and education
Modern cardiovascular interventions focus on the reduction of trauma via minimally invasive access and on individualized treatment addressing anatomical and patho-physiologic differences among patients. This focus poses numerous new challenges as interventions often require image guidance, without direct sight, and enhanced preoperative understanding for better planning and navigation. Additionally, medical education needs to be adapted to the better prepare surgeons and interventional cardiologists to these challenges. Both computational and physical models ("patient twins") provide therefore ideal tools for enhanced therapy and education truly at the point-of-care. In this talk examples of anatomical and functional 3D-printed and computational models will be presented that highlight how 3d modeling helps improving cardiovascular therapies.
Prof. Francesco Moscato is Associate Professor at the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. He has got a PhD in Mechanical Engineering and since then he has gained >15 Years expertise in the investigation and development of cardiovascular devices for diagnostic and therapeutic prupose. More recently his research has focused on medical 3D Printing. Prof. Moscato is Principal Investigator of the Austrian Infrastructure-Project “Additive Manufacturing for M3dical RESearch - M3dRES”. Within this project, medical imaging data is used to develop models for pre-operative planning and development of customized medical devices.